Functional Genomics

Genomics itself is the science understanding the structure of the human genome. It requires a thorough knowledge of the human genetic sequence and its function in the body. Functional Genomics, however, involves the use of large scale methodological understanding to discern the functions and expression of major biomolecules. The process identifies the different genes that cause diseases and complex traits in the human species. It identifies whether these diseases were caused by mutation of a certain chromosome or has a drug enhanced effect. The Human Genome Project is designed to
Gene
Gene
understand humans on a molecular level. The project researches the structures of protein products of genomes, by revealing similarities to proteins of known structure. The current interest of research community lies in getting complete genome sequences for different organisms. Unlike Genomics, Functional Genomics focuses on the dynamic aspects such as gene transcription, translation, and protein-protein interactions, as opposed to the static aspects of the genomic information such as DNA sequence or structures.
The growing momentum of genomics (the study of genes and their function) is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease, including the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Gathering information on genes through genomic projects, and actually making sense of the information that is gathered. The information gathered through these projects is interesting yes, but if this information cannot be used in the medical field what is the point? Functional Genomics uses this research to find medical uses for the information that is derived through genomic studies.



Applications
HGP are researching ways to further the understanding the genomic process. Listing below are some applications HGP are currently implementing:
  • DOE Joint Genome Institute -- Human, plant, animal, and microbial sequencing.
  • GOLD -- Genomes Online Database provides comprehensive access to information regarding complete and ongoing genome projects around the world.
  • Comprehensive Microbial Resource -- A tool that allows the researcher to access all of the bacterial genome sequences completed to date.
  • Entrez Genome -- A resource from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) for accessing information about completed and in-progress genomes.
  • Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base - Shared resources regarding Pharmacogenomics for acquisition and clinical application.


Web/News Resources:


Related Terminology:

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.
RNA - Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.
SAGE - Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a technique used by molecular biologists to produce a snapshot of the messenger RNA population in a sample of interest in the form of small tags that correspond to fragments of those transcripts.
Systems Biology - Systems biology is a biology-based inter-disciplinary study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (holism instead of reduction) to study them.
Comparitive Genomics - Comparative genomics is the study of the relationship of genome structure and function across different biological species or strains. Comparative genomics is an attempt to take advantage of the information provided by the signatures of selection to understand the function and evolutionary processes that act on genomes.
Mutation -a randomly derived change to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism.
Polymorphism - occurs when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species — in other words, the occurrence of more than one form or morph.
Pharmacogenetics - Study or clinical testing of genetic variations that gives rise to differing responses to drugs


Graphics:
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Functional Genomic Research
Functional Genomic Research


Gene Sequencing
Gene Sequencing






Citations/References:

"genomics." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. 16 Oct. 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1334658/genomics>.

Genetic Consequences of Tropical Second-Growth Forest Regeneration
Uzay U. Sezen,* Robin L. Chazdon, Kent E. Holsinger
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/307/5711/891

J. Gu, Y. Wang, and T. Lilburn
A Comparative Genomics, Network-Based Approach to Understanding Virulence in Vibrio choleraeJ. Bacteriol. 2009 191:6262-6272
http://www.pnas.org/content/102/8/3004.abstract

Functional Genomics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_genomics

Functional Genomics Vol 405, No6788 (15 June 2000)
http://www.nature.com/nature/insights/6788.html