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International Classification of Diseases- ICD-10
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems (ICD) was published by the World Health Organization (W.H.O).
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of
. This includes providing a format for reporting causes of death on the death certificate. The reported conditions are then translated into medical codes through use of the classification structure and the selection and modification rules contained in the applicable revision of the ICD, published by the World Health Organization (WHO). These coding rules improve the usefulness of mortality statistics by giving preference to certain categories, by consolidating conditions, and by systematically selecting a single cause of death from a reported sequence of conditions. The single selected cause for tabulation is called the underlying cause of death, and the other reported causes are the nonunderlying causes of death. The combination of underlying and nonunderlying causes is the multiple causes of death.
ICD has been revised
periodically to incorporate changes in the medical field. The Tenth Revision (ICD-10) differs from the
Ninth Revision (ICD-9)
in several ways although the overall content is similar: First, ICD-10 is printed in a three-volume set compared with ICD-9's two-volume set. Second, ICD-10 has alphanumeric categories rather than numeric categories. Third, some chapters have been rearranged, some titles have changed, and conditions have been regrouped. Fourth, ICD-10 has almost twice as many categories as ICD-9. Fifth, some fairly minor changes have been made in the coding rules for mortality.
Work on ICD-10 began in 1983, and the new revision was endorsed by the Forty-third
World Health Assembly
in May 1990. The latest version came into use in WHO Member States starting in 1994.The classification system allows more than 155,000 different codes and permits tracking of many new
, a significant expansion on the 17,000 codes available in
.Adoption was relatively swift in most of the world. Several materials are made available online by WHO to facilitate its use, including a manual, training guidelines, a browser, and files for download. Some countries have adapted the international standard, such as the "ICD-10-AM" published in Australia in 1998 (also used in New Zealand). and the "ICD-10-CA" introduced in Canada in 2000.
Adoption of ICD-10 has been slow in the United States. Since 1979, the USA had required ICD-9-CM codes for
claims, and most of the rest of the American medical industry followed suit. On 1 January 1999 the ICD-10 (without clinical extensions) was adopted for reporting mortality, but ICD-9-CM was still used for
. Meanwhile, NCHS received permission from the WHO to create a clinical modification of the ICD-10, and has production of all these systems
The ICD provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. Every health condition can be assigned to a unique category and given a code, up to six characters long. Such categories can include a set of similar diseases. The ICD is revamped periodically and is currently on the tenth edition(ICD-10). The next update (ICD-11) will be out sometime in 2011. Below is a short list of codes and there matching diagnoses categories.
Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
Mental and behavioural disorders
Diseases of the nervous system
Diseases of the eye and adnexa
Diseases of the ear and mastoid process
Diseases of the circulatory system
Diseases of the respiratory system
Diseases of the digestive system
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Diseases of the genitourinary system
Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
External causes of morbidity and mortality
Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
Codes for special purposes
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