Term:

Laparoscopic Surgery

Description:

Laparoscopic surgery - Minimally invasive Surgery (MIS), bandaid surgery, or Keyhole Surgery, is a modern surgical technique in which operations in the abdomen are performed through small incisions(usually 0.5–1.5 cm). Laparoscopic surgery is used in replacement to the larger incisions open surgery needed in traditional laparotomy surgical procedures. The advantages associated with laparoscopic are listed below.

The surgery receives the name "laparoscopic" because its use of a laparascope during the surgery. A rod with a light attached to the end is used in conjunction with a high definition video camera and is then inserted in the small incisions of the stomach to give the surgeon adequate viewing for the operation. In addition, carbon dioxide gas is pumped into the stomach which then subsequently elevates the stomach to give the surgeon increased maneuverability during operation.

Keyhole surgery makes use of images displayed on TV monitors to magnify the surgical elements.
Laparoscopic surgery includes operations within the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas keyhole surgery performed on the thoracic or chest cavity is called thoracoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery belong to the broader field of endoscopy.

(Traditional Laparotomy Surgery - open surgery)
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http://web.iadmd.org/Content/images/EC00093_96472_1.jpeg


Advantages of Laproscopic Surgery vs Traditional Laparotomy Surgery:
  • Reduced Infection Rates
  • Reduced Pain
  • Recovery Time
  • Cost Savings
  • Precision Surgery

external image laparoscopy1.jpg

Applications:

Laproscopic surgery is used in cases where a few very small incisions can be used to insert a cutting/grabbing device and a camera. The surgeon's hands are free to do the procedure and watch it all on a screen at a very large resolution. The first procedure was performed on a dog in 1902 and in 1910 on a human. Originally it was used for diagnosis and for simple Gynecological procedures. It has progressed a lot since then. It is used for gall bladder procedures, appendicitis, gastric bybpass, hernia repair and a mulititude of other procedures. The procedure that is done the most using this technology is the Cholecystectomy.

  • Surgical oncology The use of a fiberoptic laparoscope to determine the extent of involvement by a malignant tumor–eg, gastric, esophagus, pancreas, liver.
  • The use of a fiberoptic laparoscope and specialized instruments to diagnose and/or treat 'surgical' disease.
  • Laparoscopic Appendectomy is a much less invasive procedure for patients who have been diagnosed with an acute appendicitis than is traditional surgery.
    The surgery can be completed in less than an hour in most cases.
  • Infertility
    • To break the adhesions in and around the uterus and the tubes.
    • To remove Blockage of the fallopian tubes. These can be re-opened to a large extent by fine surgery using scissors, laser or cautery.
    • To check the patency of the Tubes. As the patient is fully relaxed due to anaesthesia the test is 100% accurate unlike the tube patency test done with the X- ray.
    • In cases of Unexplained Infertility, it enables us to study in detail, the reproductive organs and pick up some pathology or malpositioning of the tubes, ovaries, uterus or their congenital defects

Web Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laparoscopic_surgery
http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/tumor/pancreasdiseases/web%20pages/laparoscopic%20surgery/WHAT%20IS%20LAP%20SURGERY.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecystectomy
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Laproscopic+surgery
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/573499

Related Terminology:


Laparotomy - a large surgical incision made through the stomach to gain access to the internal organs.
Robotic surgery - DaVinci and Bonai
Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. It is the most common method for treating symptomatic gallstones.
Graphics:

http://www.aarnet.edu.au/library/Laparoscopy%20surgery.jpg
http://www.aarnet.edu.au/library/Laparoscopy%20surgery.jpg

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gallbladderop.jpg
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6PSqqAsSNg&feature=related