Microarray


A microarray is a multiplex lab-on-a-chip. It is a 2D array on a solid substrate (usually a glass slide or silicon thin-film cell) that assays large amounts of biological material using high-throughput screening methods. These microarrays are used explicitly as a measurement tool. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Each microarray can contain tens of thousands of DNA probes, allowing researchers to conduct thousands of experiments simultaneously. The unique thing about microarrays that separates them from other forms of DNA arrays is the fact that microarrays can be constructed by the direct sysnthesis of "oligonucleotide" probes on solid surfaces.


Microarray Process:

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About:


Microarray's are used for Biomedical research or more specifically gene research. These slides are used by scientist to quickly analyze expressions of genes such as DNA, Protein, Tissue and others types. Scientist will be able to use microarray's to answer complex questions and perform more intricate experiments.

How it works:


A Microarray is created by robotic machines which arrange incredibly tiny amounts of hundreds or thousands of gene sequences on a single microscope slide. Dye is used to generate colors based on how active a gene is at producing mRNA. The slides can then be analyzed to find which genes are active or inactive inside of cells. This allows scientist to understand how cells function normally and how they are affected when various genes do not perform properly.

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Applications:


There are several types of Microarray's for various scientific purposes.
This includes:
  • DNA Microarray's
  • MMChips
  • Protein Microarray's
  • Tissue Microarray's
  • Cellular Microarray's
  • Chemical Compound Microarray's
  • Antibodies Microarray's
  • Carbohydrate Microarray's


Web Resources:


www.genome.gov
www.dnamicroarray.net
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/microArray.php

Graphics:


DNA Microarray
microarray.gif (835×507)
microarray.gif (835×507)

Photo courtesy of www.molecularstation.com