Basic Definition: Model Based Reasoning is an idea of using a knowledge base or a form of reasoning and argument through the use of a physical system or object. The idea suggests that you following a series of steps that logically follow the model. The model then becomes a universal problem solving engine that moves between the facts of the situations and the model that represents those facts.

What is the Practicality of Model Based Reasoning?
Model Based Reasoning is primarily used in technical and medical diagnostics. Questions such as “Why does a device not work” or “what disease is this patient having the symptoms of.” The trick to this form of reasoning is dividing the differences of the actual behavior of a systems versus the anticipated behavior based on the model that represents the system. The purpose of such an Ideal is to enable programmers to save time writing code for problem specific decisions because the knowledge base is represented in a much more efficient manner. A good example of such a reasoning in the medical field is the use of Evidence-based Medicine.
Web Resources:
University of South Australia
Science Standards

Related Terminology:
Artificial Intelligence

1. University of South Australia
2. Science Standards

3. Model-based reasoning at Utrecht University